Insects. Hornets and wasps are undoubtedly among the most serious dangers, especially at lower heights: try to accurately avoid them, stay away from their nests. Generally those insects do not have unexpected reactions, but you can never know. Do not rummage any cavity, included building doors or shelters, without seeing what is inside. If you are attacked, do not try to run away without controlling the situation; rather, if you have a spare cloth, like a shirt or a jacket, use it to keep the insect away, while rapidly drawing back; when you arrive at safety distance from their nest, they should generally give up. Also avoid going too close to honeybee hives.
Horseflies can be extremely nasty. They are typical of areas where there is cattle or abundant wild mammals; their sting is very painful, although not dangerous. If they target you, they can fly around you forever. They will generally not “land” on your skin while you are moving. When they alight, it means that they are about to sting: in this moment, you can easily knock them down, but you have to strike heavily, since they are coriaceous, and also have the habit of letting them fall on the ground, pretending to be dead and, immediately after, start annoying you again. So, if they landed on your face, be careful not to hurt yourself with too powerful slaps.
Flies. In marsh or bog areas they can be in exorbitant numbers. After having been inevitably bitten, go away: there is nothing else to do, unless you have an effective repellant with you.
Ticks. Ticks may represent a real problem. They can be abundant in places where there are a lot of animals, domestic or wild. Ticks are slow and will generally climb on you during your rests, but also when you walk through high grass. Sit preferably on trunks or rocks, not among dense grass. After your rests, in case of doubt, explore yourself well since in some seasons the young ticks are microscopic . If a tick just climbed on you, for sure it will not yet have inserted its beak, so it will be easy to shake it away. If you realise of its presence at home, when already stuck, the decision of what to do will be yours; with a minimum of experience you can easily remove the tick using ordinary, flat ended tweezers, without the need of those kind of gadgets called “tick tweezers”. If you do not want, do not even try: go to your family doctor or to first aid, where often they may be not much more familiar with ticks than you are, but will in some way remove the animal. Consider however that, if you caught a tick in infected areas, you should anyway consult a doctor, since ticks can transmit a serious disease.